The Climate of The World – Class 10 Social Notes

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The Climate of The World Key Notes:

The climate of The World:

  • The Earth’s climate is the long-term average of weather patterns that occur over a large area.
  • The Earth’s climate is influenced by many factors, including solar radiation, atmospheric composition, ocean currents, and topography.
  • The Earth’s climate has changed throughout history, including periods of cooling and warming.
  • Climate change is currently a significant challenge facing the planet, with potential impacts including sea level rise, more frequent and severe weather events, and changes in ecosystems and agriculture.

Factors affecting the Earth’s climate:

  • Solar radiation is the most significant factor affecting the Earth’s climate, with changes in the amount of radiation received due to factors such as the tilt of the Earth’s axis and its distance from the sun.
  • The composition of the Earth’s atmosphere, which includes greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and water vapor, also affects the climate by trapping heat and contributing to warming.
  • Ocean currents and atmospheric circulation patterns also play a significant role in shaping the Earth’s climate by distributing heat and moisture around the planet.
  • Human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation, are also contributing to climate change by increasing greenhouse gas emissions.

Climatic zones:

  • The Earth can be divided into five major climatic zones: tropical, dry, temperate, continental, and polar.
  • Each climatic zone is characterized by distinct temperature and precipitation patterns.
  • The location and characteristics of each climatic zone are influenced by factors such as latitude, altitude, ocean currents, and atmospheric circulation.

Types of climate:

  • Tropical climates are found near the equator and are characterized by high temperatures, high humidity, and heavy rainfall throughout the year.
  • Dry climates are found in arid regions and are characterized by low rainfall, high temperatures, and often strong winds.
  • Temperate climates are found in regions that experience four distinct seasons, with moderate temperatures and precipitation throughout the year.
  • Continental climates are found in the interior of large land masses and are characterized by wide temperature variations between summer and winter and low precipitation.
  • Polar climates are found in the high latitudes near the Earth’s poles and are characterized by very low temperatures and low precipitation.

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